Fluctuating blood pressure during the day is completely normal. Blood pressure depends on age, gender, individual daily routine, diet, body weight and time of day. Depending on the physical or emotional stress, the blood pressure changes to adapt to the different requirements. These changes normally normalize themselves. A table exists for the normal values of blood pressure, created by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Blood pressure as a vital parameter
Blood pressure is a vital parameter. The blood exerts force on the vessel walls. This is reflected in the form of blood pressure. There is some kind of power in both the arteries and the veins. However, the term blood pressure usually refers to the pressure in the larger arteries. The so-called cardiac output is decisive for the level of blood pressure. This is the amount of blood that is pumped into the circulation in a given time. If the cardiac output decreases, so does the blood pressure. At rest, cardiac output is five liters per minute, which means that five liters of blood are pumped into the circulation in one minute. If the body loses blood, for example due to massive bleeding, cardiac output decreases and, as a rule, blood pressure.
The condition of the vessels also affects blood pressure. Pathologically altered arteries, which are thickened or hardened, for example, or expanded by aneurysms (sac-like dilations of a vessel), change the so-called peripheral resistance. In summary, it can be said that blood pressure depends on the cardiac output, blood volume and peripheral resistance.
Systole and diastole
Blood pressure is shown in two values, systole and diastole. The average blood pressure in the aorta is 100 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). If the left ventricle contracts, the blood pressure in a young, healthy adult rises to 120 mmHg. Here we are talking about systole. If the heart relaxes afterwards, the blood pressure drops to 80 mmHg. This is the diastole. This means that a young, healthy adult usually has a blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg.
Regulation of blood pressure
So that there are no major fluctuations in blood pressure, the body has certain mechanisms that ensure regulation of blood pressure. This is how high blood pressure (hypertension) should be excluded. Because this can damage the heart, kidneys and brain, but also other organs. If the blood pressure is too low (hypotension), if it is pronounced, it can result in the body no longer being properly supplied with the necessary nutrients and oxygen. The blood pressure must also be able to adapt to a wide variety of circumstances. For example, a higher heart-time volume is required when jogging than at rest. For all of this, there are certain sensory cells in the body in various places, such as in the aortic arch, in the carotid arteries, in the carotid sinus (vasodilation at the beginning of the internal carotid artery), but also in other large arteries in the body, which detect and stretch or relax the artery wall then pass on this knowledge about the elongated spinal cord to the brain, thereby lowering or driving the work of the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn changes the blood pressure and balances the fluctuating blood pressure.
Measure blood pressure
In order to correctly assess the cardiovascular situation of a patient, the blood pressure is measured in each case in addition to other tests. Blood pressure fluctuations can be determined here. A single measurement does not allow any information about possible pathological values. The patient is therefore often asked to measure the blood pressure and to record the values over a certain period of time at fixed times. In some cases, patients are put on a blood pressure monitor for twenty-four hours in order to detect any fluctuations.
From hypotension to hypertension
Fluctuating blood pressure is normal throughout the day when moving around the frame. Especially in the early morning and late afternoon, the values are usually higher than at night. Exercise, nutrition, psychological stress and much more influence the blood pressure value. The resulting fluctuations in blood pressure pose no health problems. However, if the fluctuating blood pressure manifests itself in values that are clearly too high or too low and persists in the long term, this usually means pathological fluctuations in blood pressure. A value of 120/80 mmHg in an adult speaks for perfect blood pressure. Values up to 130/85 mmHg are still normal and up to 139 / 85-89 mmHg are just still in the frame.
Hypertension, in technical terms called hypertension, is divided into three grades. In grade I, also called mild hypertension, the value of systole is between 140 and 159 mmHg and that of diastole is between 90 and 99 mmHg. In grade II, the moderately severe form, the systole is between 160 and 179 mmHg, the diastole between 100 and 109 mmHg. All values that are larger are assigned to grade III and mean severe hypertension.
Hypotension occurs when the values are below 100/60 mmHg in women and 110/60 mmHg in men over a long period of time.
The most common are fluctuations in blood pressure in the form of hypertension without an organic cause. Risk factors for high or high blood pressure are obesity (overweight), lack of exercise, alcohol, stress, genetic disposition, potassium deficiency, smoking and advanced age. Hypertension is also often associated with type II diabetes and elevated blood lipid levels. The expression primary hypertension means that there are no recognizable causes. Secondary hypertension occurs when high blood pressure develops due to certain diseases. These include kidney diseases, metabolic disorders and vascular diseases. But rheumatism drugs or taking the contraceptive pill can also lead to hypertension and thus trigger fluctuations in blood pressure.
Symptoms of high blood pressure
The affected patients do not always feel that they have fluctuations in blood pressure or suffer from hypertension. However, there are some symptoms that can indicate this. These include dizziness, severe headaches, which occur mainly in the morning, sleep disorders, ringing in the ears, fatigue, nervousness, nosebleeds, shortness of breath, a red complexion, visual disturbances and nausea. However, these symptoms do not necessarily have to be present and can also indicate completely different diseases.
Causes of hypotension
With different blood pressure in the form of hypotension, there are blood pressure values that fall below 100/60 mmHg in women and 110/60 mmHg in men over a longer period of time. As a rule, no therapy needs to be followed if those affected feel comfortable despite this fluctuation in blood pressure. However, if the patient suffers from the consequences of reduced blood flow (systole is crucial for the blood flow to the brain), hypotension requires treatment.
A distinction is made between three types. The essential or primary hypotension occurs without a recognizable cause. This form is common, especially in young, slim girls. Symptomatic or secondary hypotension is to be seen in connection with an underlying disease, such as heart failure, aortic stenosis, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency or a pronounced (blood) volume deficiency. But drugs such as diuretics or psychotropic drugs and long bedriddenness can also lead to fluctuations in blood pressure such as hypotension.
A recurring drop in blood pressure in connection with a change of position from lying to standing is called orthostatic dysregulation or orthostatic hypotension. Normally, the body counteracts the blood pressure fluctuation that occurs when standing up from the horizontal position. This does not work properly with orthostatic dysregulation. Those affected suffer from dizziness, cold sweat, nausea with the onset of brief fainting. Youngest, slim girls, but also lean, older patients are most often affected.
Symptoms of hypotension
Often there are no symptoms with hypotension. If so, then this is a drop in performance, fatigue, lack of concentration, dizziness, blackening before the eyes especially when getting up or standing for a long time. Syncope (brief loss of consciousness) can also be present, such as shivering, slight nausea, depressed mood, pallor and a feeling of tightness in the heart. Caution should be exercised if you are passed out. If this does not disappear within a few minutes, the emergency doctor must be informed immediately.
With fluctuations in blood pressure in the form of hypertension, those affected do not necessarily have to suffer from symptoms. Even if patients do not notice any of it, high or even high blood pressure should be taken seriously. Often, lifestyle changes come first. This includes a change in diet, refraining from smoking and alcohol, regular sport and relaxation exercises (e.g. autogenic training). Patients should measure their blood pressure at certain times and keep a record of it. Special features of the daily routine should also be mentioned here. Regular eye checks are also important to prevent retinal damage. In secondary hypertension, the treatment of the underlying disease is in the foreground.
The treatment of primary hypertension includes general measures such as a healthy, balanced and fat-free diet, enough exercise and regular relaxation. Drug therapy is usually also used, depending on the extent of the blood pressure fluctuations. Cooperation between doctor and patient is important in the treatment of hypertension. Incompatibilities in connection with the medication should be reported and the effectiveness of the medication can be determined with the help of a blood pressure diary, in which those affected enter the blood pressure values daily at certain times. In some cases, two or three drugs are combined.
Treatment of hypotension
If there are fluctuations in blood pressure, in the form of hypotension, different blood pressure measurements are carried out on both arms and at different times of the day. The so-called Schellong test is a specific test that is primarily carried out when orthostatic hypotension is suspected. Blood pressure and pulse are recorded while lying down, standing and then again while lying down until the initial value is reached.
With fluctuations in blood pressure, in the form of essential hypotension, no treatment is usually necessary, except in severe cases. If symptomatic hypotension is present, the treatment of the underlying disease is in the foreground. Especially when there are no pathological causes, regular exercise in the fresh air, alternating showers, brush massages and adequate hydration often help against low blood pressure.
Naturopathy for hypertension
Fluctuating blood pressure in the form of hypertension based on naturopathy should always be treated alongside conventional medical treatment. With mild forms of hypertension, naturopathy also offers a good opportunity to lower blood pressure in a purely natural way. In any case, it is important that patients suffering from high blood pressure regularly visit the doctor to rule out possible complications.
Bloodletting and bloody cupping are used for hypertension in naturopathy. From homeopathy, remedies such as arnica, belladonna, lachesis, phosphorus and plumbum are considered to lower blood pressure. Likewise, complex agents that often contain rauwolfia can bring relief. Medicinal plants from the garden of nature are here the mistletoe, the olive tree, garlic, hawthorn and the alpine rose. Water applications such as rising arm baths are also recommended to those affected. In the event of fluctuations in blood pressure with high or even high blood pressure, a change in diet, moderate exercise and daily breaks are recommended in most cases. Smoking and alcohol should also be avoided and existing body weight should be reduced.
Naturopathy for hypotension
With fluctuating blood pressure, naturopathy is often used these days. Naturopathic therapy is a good way to tackle the symptoms, especially with primary hypotension, which occurs without a recognizable cause. Basically, those suffering from low blood pressure are advised to take their time from getting up from the lying position, sit down first, circle with their feet and then only get upright. Many hypotonic people have circulatory problems when they have to stand for a long time. This is where wobbling on the ball of the toe or clawing in and releasing the toes helps.
In naturopathy, rejection procedures such as cupping and Baunscheidt therapy are used for low blood pressure. Remedies such as potassium carbonicum, lachesis, sepia, veratrum album, to name just a few, help from homeopathy. Complex agents that contain rosemary or camphor can help in acute situations. In phytotherapy, for example, plants such as hawthorn, rosemary and ginseng are known that can raise blood pressure that is too low. Bitter substances, which are also used in the treatment of liver or gastrointestinal disorders, are also good helpers in the treatment of fluctuations in blood pressure. Acupuncture and reflexology are also part of the therapeutic spectrum for the treatment of hypotension.
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.
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ICD codes for this disease: I10, I95ICD codes are internationally valid encodings for medical diagnoses. You can find yourself e.g. in doctor's letters or on disability certificates.