Which means if the urine is very light or colorless
Our urine is mostly water. Only five percent are urea, uric acid, creatinine, salts, acids, dyes, hormones and vitamins. We release about two liters of urine a day, depending on how much we drink. The more we sweat, the less urine leaves the body.
Kidneys and urethra
The urine is formed in the kidneys and enters the bladder through the ureters. The urethra leads out of there. If the kidneys are diseased, fluid and waste can no longer be excreted as necessary. A discolored urine may indicate this.
The urethra connects the outside world with the urinary tract, the kidney and the bladder. Fungi, viruses, bacteria and single cells can penetrate through the excretory organ and cause inflammation. This can be seen in a slimy or cloudy discharge and pain when urinating, as well as an increased urge to urinate without drinking more than usual.
The bladder lies on the pelvic floor and collects the urine. At more than 350 milliliters, we feel the urge to urinate, but a healthy bladder also stores up to a liter. The bladder is divided into the bladder body, bladder neck and bladder base. Two ureters connect the bladder to the kidneys, the waste products of which pass into the bladder with the urine to be disposed of via the urethra. The bubble works like a balloon. When the urine fills it, it becomes a ball. Smooth muscles make them very stretchy.
Bladder pain is accompanied by a burning sensation when peeing. If the bladder is inflamed, we feel a strong urge to urinate even with small amounts of urine.
Fluor vaginalis, the vaginal discharge, is perfectly normal. It is not urine! The discharge in girls begins before puberty and continues until menopause, and is stronger during ovulation and pregnancy. The body disposes of excess mucus from the uterus and cells. Lactic acid bacteria in the discharge keep harmful pathogens away.
Normal discharge is transparent to white, it appears glassy during ovulation. In the period it can turn reddish. If the discharge takes on a brown color, this shows a changed flora in the vagina. This can be due to pregnancy, but also due to an illness. The most common causes of a brownish discharge are hormonal fluctuations or infections, but changes in tissue or medication can also be used as triggers.
Drinking a lot leads to light color
Pale yellow urine is usually not a sign of illness. In healthy people, dark urine is a signal to drink more. Urine gets its color from bile substances that form when red blood cells are broken down. The more we drink, the more the water dilutes these dyes. The more we sweat and the less we drink, the darker the urine.
Urine in any color can be cloudy. This is either due to pus, fibrin, a protein or polished cells. It may be a kidney or urinary tract disorder. Occasional cloudy urine in young men is normal.
The urine becomes almost colorless when we drink a lot. But be careful: Even a hormonal disorder, diabetes insipidus (has nothing to do with diabetes) leads to the excretion of a large amount of very light urine.
Urine in the color of milk or cream shows that the urine contains white blood cells and this is usually a sign of an infection of the kidneys and / or urethra.
The color of the urine is often the result of harmless medication or food. After enjoying beetroot, for example, the urine turns brown-red, brown-green for bearberry, lemon money for rhubarb and yolk-yellow for certain vitamin tablets.
Diabetes insipidus centralis
Both forms of diabetes insipidus show up in very light urine. In contrast to healthy people who have drunk a lot, the disease also manifests itself in a constant and strong thirst. In diabetes insipidus neurohormonalis, the hormone ADH is insufficiently produced in the hypothalamus or insufficiently transported from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary. Other causes are that the pituitary interlobes do not store the hormone sufficiently or do not release enough. ADH ensures that urine is concentrated - this type of diabetes results in too much urine being given too little.
Causes of ADH deficiency include head trauma, cysts, surgery, inflammation, bleeding, infarction or tumors. Such disorders can lead to the disease if they damage the hypthalamus or pituitary gland. One of the following basic disorders is also extremely rare: Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidosis or histiocystosis X. Genetic predisposition, i.e. familial diabetes insipidus, is even rarer.
To date, insufficient research has been carried out into diabetes insipidius: in a third of cases, the cause remains unknown.
Diabetes insipidius renalis
This is a rare form of an already rare disease. In contrast to "classic" diabetes insipidus, this renal variant starts from the kidney. The ADH hormone is present in sufficient quantities, but the kidney cannot form normally concentrated urine. Either the AQP 2 aquaporin canal is damaged and the kidney is unable to return water from the primary urine, or the kidney tubules have been affected by kidney diseases or drugs such as lithium. With every diabetes insipidus, the kidneys excrete too much water. If the person does not drink to a high degree, the sodium in the blood is concentrated and there is hypertonic dehydration, a lack of water inside the body. (Dr. Utz Anhalt)
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.
Dr. phil. Utz Anhalt, Barbara Schindewolf-Lensch
- Thomas Gasser: Basic knowledge of urology, Springer Verlag, 6th edition, 2015
- Ian M. Chapman: Central Diabetes Insipidus, MSD Manual, (accessed September 8, 2019), MSD
- L. Aimee Hechanova: Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, MSD Manual, (accessed September 8, 2019), MSD